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Find the odd man out in the following ac eg df ik

Read left to right, top to bottom. See here for explanation. Each of the following lists leads to a second list, which leads to a third list, which leads to a fourth list which is in alphabetical order. What are the fourth lists?

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Reasoning - Odd Man Out

We'd like to understand how you use our websites in order to improve them. Register your interest. The tobacco industry has globalized and tobacco use continues to increase in low- and middle-income countries. Yet, the data and research to inform policy initiatives for addressing this phenomenon is sparse. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of adult tobacco use in 17 Sub-Saharan Africa SSA countries, and to identify key factors associated with adult tobacco consumption choices smoked, smokeless tobacco and dual use in Madagascar.

A multinomial logistic regression model was used to identify key determinants of adult tobacco consumption choices in Madagascar. While differences in tobacco use exist in SSA, Madagascar has exceptionally higher prevalence rates The regression analyses showed complexity of tobacco use in Madagascar and identified age, education, wealth, employment, marriage, religion and place of residence as factors significantly associated with the choice of tobacco use among males, while age, wealth, and employment were significantly associated with that of females.

The effects, however, differ across the three choices of tobacco use compared to non-use. Tobacco use in Madagascar was higher than the other 16 SSA countries. Although the government continues to enact policies to address the problem, there is a need for effective implementation and enforcement.

There is also the need for health education to modify social norms and denormalize tobacco use. Peer Review reports. Tobacco use in many Sub-Saharan Africa SSA countries is generally low [ 1 ], but like many low- and middle-income countries LMICs around the world, the volume of cigarette consumption has been increasing over the past decades [ 2 , 3 ].

While there are several determinants for this increasing trend of tobacco use in LMICs, a key contributory factor has been the aggressive market penetration by Transnational Tobacco Companies TTCs [ 4 — 6 ].

Understanding tobacco use and the role of TTCs in exacerbating the problem has, however, been hampered by paucity of data and sparse research [ 7 ]. This development has generated the need for more investigations, and policy and programmatic interventions to combat tobacco use in LMICs such as those in SSA. Still, the generally low, but increasing rates of tobacco use in SSA countries [ 3 , 10 ], along with demographic and socioeconomic changes such as increasing incomes and urbanization [ 2 ], and relatively weak tobacco control policies and programs [ 1 ] provide a potential market for the tobacco industry to exploit.

Although research to provide insight into adult and youth tobacco use in SSA [ 11 — 16 ] has slowly been growing over the past decade, there is an inadequate analysis across countries and limited information on many countries, including Madagascar [ 17 ]. Therefore, this study investigates adult tobacco use in SSA with a greater emphasis on Madagascar because of high rates of prevalence of tobacco use compared with SSA countries.

Additionally, Madagascar requires more consideration because it is not only one of the few LMICs and SSA countries with scarce information on adult tobacco use [ 1 ] but also faces a bleak public health future as over two-thirds of the population live below the poverty line [ 18 ], its Human Development Index ranking is one of the lowest in the world [ 19 ], and tobacco-induced non-communicable diseases NCDs such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have emerged as major causes of mortality [ 18 ].

Madagascar is the largest island in the Indian Ocean and the 4th largest island in the world with a population of about 21 million in [ 18 ]. The presence of the tobacco industry in the country dates back to the s when the Tobaccor Group from France established a cigarette manufacturing and distribution network [ 5 ]. In , Imperial Tobacco Limited acquired the Tobaccor Group and became a near monopoly in Madagascar with easier access to tobacco markets in Eastern and Southern Africa [ 5 , 20 , 21 ].

The co-existence of a strong tobacco industry working to bolster consumption through marketing, promotions and corporate social responsibility activities, and progressive tobacco control efforts by the government generates the need to identify where to target the limited resources to reduce tobacco use prevalence in the population. The objective of this study was to estimate adult tobacco use prevalence in 17 SSA countries with a greater focus on understanding tobacco use in Madagascar.

Along with estimating prevalence of adult tobacco use in these 17 countries, we will further assess the prevalence, and identify key determinants of choice of various forms of tobacco use smoked, smokeless and dual use among adults aged 15—49 years in Madagascar.

We hypothesize that there is a wide variation in tobacco use in SSA countries, and that tobacco use in Madagascar is associated with several socioeconomic and contextual factors. The study provides an overview of tobacco use in SSA, and facilitates a comprehensive understanding of the situation in Madagascar to inform policy and programmatic initiatives to control the problem as well as support policies that ensure the implementation of the FCTC.

Initially, we conducted a preliminary analysis to estimate tobacco use prevalence among both adult male and female residents in 17 SSA countries using the Demographic Health Survey DHS , — The DHS was a stratified, two-stage cluster sampling design, where occupied households e. Detailed description of the survey, including methodology, questionnaire development, administration, collection of information and management of data by survey weights to make it representative of the respective populations have been discussed in earlier studies and reports [ 11 , 24 ], and are also available online at ICF International [ 25 ].

Subsequently, we conducted a comprehensive analysis to understand tobacco use among adults in Madagascar. As stated earlier, Madagascar was chosen because the tobacco use among both adult males and females was much higher than those in the other 16 SSA countries.

The overall response rate for the household survey in Madagascar was We examined and compared the choice behavior of males and females aged 15—49 years with respect to their tobacco consumption to ensure uniformity of data in the regression analyses.

The participants in the DHS were asked several health-related questions, including their tobacco use behavior. Thus, a typical participant in the survey was faced with a choice between smoked and smokeless tobacco products SLTs. Therefore, a participant can decide which of the four tobacco use categories applies to her or him: no consumption of any tobacco products, consumption of only smoked tobacco products, consumption of only SLTs, or consumption of both smoked tobacco products and SLTs dual use.

Multinomial Logit Model MNLM , which simultaneously estimates binary logits for all possible comparisons among the outcome categories, is well suited to examine such multiple outcomes [ 28 ]. We specified each nominal outcome as a nonlinear function of the independent variables. The MNLM can be formally stated as follows.

Let y be a dependent variable with J nominal outcomes. The J categories are numbered 1 through J, but are not ordered in any way. As a probability model, the MNLM can then be written as:. These J equations can be solved to compute the predicted probabilities:. The independent variables X included gender, age in years, education status no education, primary education, high-school education, or university education , standardized wealth index a used as a proxy measure for income that was not collected in the survey, occupation status unemployed, agricultural labors, service manual labors, or service non-manual labors , marital status married or unmarried , religious beliefs Christianity, Islam, Traditional religions, or other religions and place of residence rural or urban.

Although the choice of these variables was informed by the literature [ 11 , 29 , 30 ], it was simultaneously constrained by the information available in the DHS dataset [ 25 ]. All the variables, except age and wealth index, were categorical. Although price is an important determinant of tobacco use [ 6 ], it was not included in the regression because the price paid for tobacco was not collected by the survey and the cross-sectional nature of data limited variation in tobacco prices across time.

Based on the established gender gradient in tobacco use in SSA [ 1 , 10 ], the analyses were done separately for males and females. Descriptive statistics of three types of tobacco use smoked, SLTs, and dual use were reported for males and females using proportions.

Additionally, in order to make comparisons more meaningful, data for a uniform age category 15—49 years were used for both males and females to estimate the MNLM. The MNLM models were checked for possible multicollinearity, but it did not warrant dropping any variables. Robust standard errors were used to improve estimates because of lack of information on structure of heteroskedasticity of the data.

The Chi square goodness of fit statistics was estimated to check the overall fit of the model and is reported along with the MNLM results. All models were estimated using probability weights from the survey and Stata These results demonstrated that the prevalence of tobacco use in Madagascar was much higher than other 16 SSA countries in the DHS dataset, indicating the need for comprehensive investigation into tobacco use in this country.

Tobacco use among adults in Sub-Saharan African Countries. The prevalence of tobacco use has a strong gender gradient with Among males, SLTs use prevalence increased with age, but smoked and dual use of tobacco products peaked during 20—24 years It can also be observed that the prevalence of the use of all forms of tobacco products was higher for males with no or lower than primary education.

Additionally, while males employed in agriculture had higher prevalence of SLTs use The prevalence of all forms of tobacco products was more among married While Christian males had the highest prevalence of SLTs use While the prevalence of SLTs use Among females, the prevalence of dual use of tobacco products is much less 0. While the prevalence of SLTs use and smoking increased with age, that of dual use peaked during 35—39 years.

Although the highest prevalence of SLTs and dual use was among females with no education, the highest smoking prevalence was among those with high-school education and above. With increase in wealth, the prevalence of SLTs use decreased, but vice versa with that of smoking and dual use.

Furthermore, similar to males, female agriculture employees had the highest prevalence of SLTs use The prevalence of the use of all forms of tobacco products was higher among married females and Muslim females had the least prevalence of the use of any tobacco product. Finally, females residing in rural areas had higher prevalence of SLTs use The results of the combined analysis can be made available upon request.

The education and religion variables were dropped from the female regression because the sample was not sufficient for females belonging to certain categories of education and religion in the examination of the various tobacco product choices. Among males, the prevalence of all forms of tobacco use had a positive association with age, i. Compared to males with university education, those with no or primary education had 7. Employed males had higher relative risks of using any form of tobacco products than unemployed.

Specifically, males in service-manual employment had higher relative risks of smoking or SLTs use, while those employed in agriculture had higher relative risks of dual use of tobacco products, compared with unemployed males.

Married males had 1. The relative risks of SLT use were lower among all religious groups compared to Christians.

Place of residence had a significant effect only for male smoking and that males residing in urban areas had 1. Similar to males, the relative risks of smoking and SLTs use among females increased with age. Wealth had varying effect on the choice of tobacco use among females.

While females in both agriculture and service-manual occupation had higher relative risks of SLT use, those in service-non-manual occupation had lower relative risks compared with unemployed ones.

Females in agricultural employment had a lower relative risks for smoking compared to unemployed women. Unlike males, marital status did not affect tobacco consumption choices among females in any significant way. Residing in urban areas did not affect smoking or SLT use behavior among females. Tobacco use causes several preventable diseases and deaths 5.

For many LMICs, however, curbing the increasing trend has been problematic and challenging due to inadequate information on tobacco use. Thus, this study explored tobacco use prevalence in 17 SSA countries with a comprehensive investigation into Madagascar to provide information for policy and programmatic interventions as well as facilitate the implementation of the FCTC. Indeed, nearly half of Madagascan adult males in this study reported that they used some form of tobacco product SLTs use prevalence This higher level of SLTs use prevalence in the country may be due to the large proportion of Madagascans with South Asian origin as previous studies have documented that South Asians are highest SLTs users in the world [ 31 — 33 ].

The study provided a comprehensive investigation into adult tobacco use in Madagascar by estimating the prevalence and identifying key factors associated with the risk of tobacco consumption. While the prevalence of use of any form of tobacco products smoked, SLTs, and dual use in Madagascar was high, the overall prevalence was particularly high among males When this high prevalence rate is coupled with the fact that over two-fifths of all mortality in Madagascar is due to NCDs [ 18 ], the situation in the country resembles those in more advanced stages of the Tobacco Epidemic Model, which describes the progression of the tobacco epidemic in countries based on the experience of developed countries [ 10 ].

Simultaneously, the gender gap supports the modified Tobacco Epidemic Model because it suggests that males and females in many LMICs have different tobacco epidemic trajectories [ 10 ]. Nevertheless, with these high rates of tobacco use prevalence and incidence of NCDs in the country, Madagascar faces the double-burden of disease and is now at the stage of tobacco epidemic where there is a necessity for combined aggressive prevention strategies and cessation efforts.

The odd man out in Sub-Saharan Africa: understanding the tobacco use prevalence in Madagascar

We'd like to understand how you use our websites in order to improve them. Register your interest. The tobacco industry has globalized and tobacco use continues to increase in low- and middle-income countries.

In every competitive exam, Odd Man Out type questions are very common. In odd man out problems all the items given in the question except one follow a certain pattern or a group. That means out of the all given elements, one will not fall into the group due to some difference in the property.

Either your web browser doesn't support Javascript or it is currently turned off. In the latter case, please turn on Javascript support in your web browser and reload this page. The tobacco industry has globalized and tobacco use continues to increase in low- and middle-income countries. Yet, the data and research to inform policy initiatives for addressing this phenomenon is sparse.

Classification / Odd Man Out Series Problems with Explnations - Alphabets

Mam i m confused in Q. Sorry for the inconvenience Ankit. Thats a typing mistake actually. The pair is "QU" not "QW". Corrected it now. Thank you so much for the complaint Good Day. Yep you are correct Devi. Its a typing mistake Sorry for the inconvenience. Good Day.

The odd man out in Sub-Saharan Africa: understanding the tobacco use prevalence in Madagascar.

Multiple hybridization events gave rise to pentaploid dogroses which can reproduce sexually despite their uneven ploidy level by the unique canina meiosis. Two homologous chromosome sets are involved in bivalent formation and are transmitted by the haploid pollen grains and the tetraploid egg cells. In addition the egg cells contain three sets of univalent chromosomes which are excluded from recombination. We detected a maximum number of four different alleles of all investigated loci in pentaploid dogroses and identified the respective allele with two copies, which is presumably located on bivalent forming chromosomes. Moreover, we found for the three marker genes that all alleles have been under similar regimes of purifying selection.



Aptitude - Odd Man Out and Series


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Jul 25, - E-mail address: [email protected] /$ My reservations about fMRI work (see above) were spelt out in my book (x.b).by MA Boden - ‎ - ‎Cited by 14 - ‎Related articles.








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